Question: What atomic transitions are allowed or forbidden?

The only allowed transitions are those in which the orbital quantum number of an electron changes by one and its magnetic quantum number remains the same or changes by one. Radiations not meeting these selection rules are rarely observed.

Which of the transition is allowed?

The only allowed transitions are those in which the orbital quantum number of an electron changes by one and its magnetic quantum number remains the same or changes by one. Radiations not meeting these selection rules are rarely observed.

Why does triplet state exist?

In a triplet state the excited electron is no longer paired with the ground state electron; that is, they are parallel (same spin). Since excitation to a triplet state involves an additional forbidden spin transition, it is less probable that a triplet state will form when the molecule absorbs radiation.

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